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Septic arthritis, cause, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Septic arthritis is inflammation of a joint caused by a bacterial infection. It’s also known as infectious or bacterial arthritis. Any joint can be affected by septic arthritis, but it’s most common in the knees and hips. More than one joint can be affected at the same time. Most people make a full recovery after treatment. Without treatment, septic arthritis may lead to permanent joint damage and can become life threatening.

Causes of septic arthritis:- The condition is most commonly caused by either:


• staphylococcal bacteria
• streptococcal bacteria
These bacteria may enter a wound and travel through your bloodstream to the affected joint, or may infect your joint directly after an injury or during surgery.

Symptoms of septic arthritis:- Septic arthritis typically causes severe pain, swelling, redness and heat in affected joints. These symptoms tend to develop quickly over a few hours or days. You may also have difficulty moving the affected joint, and some people have a high temperature (fever). Young children with septic arthritis will generally be irritable and may cry whenever the infected joint is moved – for example, during nappy changing. They may also try to avoid using or putting any weight on affected joints.

Diagnosing septic arthritis:- You may have a blood test and a sample of fluid may be removed from your affected joint with a needle. This is to look for signs of inflammation and infection, and to identify any bacteria. If you have septic arthritis, there may be high numbers of white blood cells in your blood and joint fluid, which is a sign of infection.

Treating septic arthritis:- Septic arthritis is treated with antibiotics. You’ll normally need to stay in hospital for at least two weeks to have antibiotics given to you directly into a vein (intravenously).You may need to rest in bed for a few days to take pressure off the affected joint. You’ll be given medication to relieve the pain. You might also have the fluid drained from your infected joint using a needle and syringe, or during a procedure called an arthroscopy. This is where a fine, metal tube is inserted through a small cut made near the affected joint. This will normally be done by an orthopedic surgeon. After you finish the course of intravenous antibiotics, you’ll probably need to take antibiotic tablets at home for at least another four weeks.

You should completely recover after antibiotic treatment, although some people still experience persistent limited movement in the affected joint.

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Back pain and its treatment

Back pain is very common and normally improves within a few weeks or months. Pain in the lower back (lumbago) is particularly common, although it can be felt anywhere along the spine – from the neck down to the hips. In most cases the pain isn’t caused by anything serious and will usually get better over time. There are things you can do to help relieve it. But sometimes the pain can last a long time or keep coming back.

Causes of back pain:-


Often it’s not possible to identify the cause of back pain. Doctors call this “non-specific” back pain. Sometimes the pain may be a result of an injury such as a sprain or strain, but often it occurs for no apparent reason. It’s very rarely caused by anything serious.


Occasionally back pain can be due to a medical condition such as:
• A slipped (prolapsed) disc – where a disc of cartilage in the spine presses on a nearby nerve
• Sciatica – irritation of the nerve that runs from the pelvis to the feet
These conditions tend to cause additional symptoms – such as numbness, weakness or a tingling sensation – and they’re treated differently to non-specific back pain.

How to relieve back pain:-


The following tips may help reduce your backache and speed up your recovery:
• Stay as active as possible and try to continue your daily activities – this is one of the most important things you can do, as resting for long periods is likely to make the pain worse
• Try exercises and stretches for back pain; other activities such as walking, swimming and yoga may also be helpful
• Take anti-inflammatory painkillers, such as ibuprofen – remember to check the medicine is safe for you to take first and ask a pharmacist if you’re not sure
• Use hot or cold compression packs for short-term relief

Treatments from a specialist:-


Your specialist or physiotherapist may recommend extra treatments if they don’t think your pain will improve with self-help measures alone.


These may include:


• Group exercise classes – where you’re taught exercises to strengthen your muscles and improve your posture
• Physio-therapy – treatments such as manipulating the spine and massage, usually carried out by physiotherapists, chiropractors or osteopaths
• Psychological support, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) – this can be a useful part of treatment if you’re struggling to cope with the pain
Some people choose to see a therapist for Physio-therapy without seeing their general practitioner first. If you want to do this, you’ll usually need to pay for private treatment.

 

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Lazy eye (amblyopia)

A lazy eye (amblyopia) is a childhood condition where the vision in one eye doesn’t develop properly. This usually means that the child can see less clearly out of the affected eye and relies more on the “good” eye.

Sign And Symptomes :-


A lazy eye doesn’t usually cause symptoms. Younger children are often unaware that there’s anything wrong with their vision and, if they are, they’re usually unable to explain what’s wrong. Older children may complain that they can’t see as well through one eye and have problems with reading, writing and drawing.
• a squint – where the weaker eye looks inwards, outwards, upwards or downwards, while the other eye looks forwards
• refractive errors – where a person is either short-sighted (myopia)or long-sighted (hyperopia)
• childhood cataracts – cloudy patches that develop in the lens, which is located behind the clear layer of tissue at the front of the eye (cornea)

What causes a lazy eye?


The eyes work like a camera. Light passes through the lens of each eye and reaches a light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye called the retina. The retina translates the image into nerve signals that are sent to the brain. The brain combines the signals from each eye into a three-dimensional image.A lazy eye occurs when the brain connections responsible for vision aren’t made properly.


This can be the result of:


• a reduction in the amount of light entering the eye
• a lack of focus in the eye
• confusion between the eyes – where the two images aren’t the same (such as a squint)
Left untreated, this can lead to the eye’s central vision never reaching normal levels.

Treating a lazy eye:-


In most cases it is possible to treat a lazy eye, usually in two stages.The underlying problem is first corrected using glasses to correct the focus of the eye, which often helps to correct a squint as well.The child is then encouraged to use the affected eye again.

This can be done using an eye patch to cover the stronger eye, or eye drops to temporarily impair the vision in the stronger eye.Treatment is often effective, but it’s a gradual process that takes many months to work.

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Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of dementia, Dementia is a progressive neurological disease which affects multiple brain functions, including memory.The exact cause of Alzheimer’s disease is unknown, although a number of things are thought to increase your risk of developing the condition.
These include:

• Increasing age
• A family history of the condition
• Previous severe head injuries
• Lifestyle factors and conditions associated with cardiovascular disease

Signs and symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease:-


Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive condition, which means the symptoms develop gradually and become more severe over the course of several years. It affects multiple brain functions.The first sign of Alzheimer’s disease is usually minor memory problems. For example, this could be forgetting about recent conversations or events, and forgetting the names of places and objects.


As the condition develops, memory problems become more severe and further symptoms can develop, such as:


• Confusion, disorientation and getting lost in familiar places
• Difficulty planning or making decisions
• Problems with speech and language
• Problems moving around without assistance or performing self-care tasks
• Personality changes, such as becoming aggressive, demanding and suspicious of others
• Hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that aren’t there) and delusions (believing things that are untrue)
• Low mood or anxiety

Diagnosis:-


As the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease progress slowly, it can be difficult to recognise that there’s a problem. Many people feel that memory problems are simply a part of getting older. However, a timely diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease can give you the best chance to prepare and plan for the future, as well as receive any treatment or support that may help.

There’s no single test that can be used to diagnose Alzheimer’s disease. If Alzheimer’s disease is suspected, you may be referred to a specialist memory service to:
• Discuss the process of making the diagnosis
• Organise testing
• Create a treatment plan
How Alzheimer’s disease is treated?


There’s no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, but medication is available that can help relieve some of the symptoms and slow down the progression of the condition in some people.Various other types of support are also available to help people with Alzheimer’s live as independently as possible, such as making changes to your home environment so it’s easier to move around and remember daily tasks.


Psychological treatments such as cognitive stimulation therapy may also be offered to help support your memory, problem solving skills and language ability.

 

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Hair loss Types and Treatment

Alopecia is the general medical term for hair loss. There are many types of hair loss with different symptoms and causes.
Some of the more common types of hair loss are described below, including:
Male- and female-pattern baldness
• Alopecia areata
• Scarring alopecia
• Anagen effluvium
• Telogen effluvium

Male- and female-pattern baldness


Male-pattern baldness is the most common type of hair loss, affecting around half of all men by 50 years of age. It usually starts around the late twenties or early thirties and most men have some degree of hair loss by their late thirties.it generally follows a pattern of a receding hairline, followed by thinning of the hair on the crown and temples, leaving a horseshoe shape around the back and sides of the head.

Sometimes it can progress to complete baldness, although this is uncommon.male-pattern baldness is hereditary(genetic), which means it runs in families. It’s thought to be caused by oversensitive hair follicles, linked to having too much of a certain male hormone (dihydrotestosterone) .
As well as affecting men, it can sometimes affect women (female-pattern baldness). During female-pattern baldness, hair usually only thins on top of the head. It’s not clear if female-pattern baldness is hereditary and the causes are less well understood. However, it tends to be more noticeable in women who have been through the menopause (when a woman’s periods stop at around age 52-58), perhaps because they have fewer female hormones.

Alopecia areata


Alopecia areata causes patches of baldness about the size of a large coin. They usually appear on the scalp but can occur anywhere on the body. It can occur at any age, but mostly affects teenagers and young adults.in most cases of alopecia areata, hair will grow back in a few months. At first, hair may grow back fine and white, but over time it should thicken and regain its normal colour.

Alopecia areata is caused by a problem with the immune system (the body’s natural defence against infection and illness). It’s more common among people with other autoimmune conditions, such as an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism), diabetes or down’s syndrome.

Scarring alopecia 


Scarring alopecia, also known as cicatricial alopecia, is usually caused by complications of another condition. In this type of alopecia, the hair follicle (the small hole in your skin that an individual hair grows out of) is completely destroyed. This means your hair won’t grow back.depending on the condition, the skin where the hair has fallen out is likely to be affected in some way.


Conditions which can cause scarring alopecia include:


• Scleroderma – a condition affecting the body’s connective (supporting) tissues, resulting in hard, puffy and itchy skin
• Lichen planus – an itchy rash affecting many areas of the body
• Discoid lupus – a mild form of lupus affecting the skin, causing scaly marks and hair loss
• Folliculitis decalvans – a rare form of alopecia that most commonly affects men, causing baldness and scarring of the affected areas
• Frontal fibrosing alopecia – a type of alopecia that affects post-menopausal women where the hair follicles are damaged, and the hair falls out and is unable to grow back.

Anagen effluvium


Anagen effluvium is widespread hair loss that can affect your scalp, face and body. One of the most common causes of this type of hair loss is the cancer treatment chemotherapy. In some cases, other cancer treatments – including immunotherapy and radiotherapy – may also cause hair loss. In most cases, hair loss in anagen effluvium is temporary. Your hair should start to grow back a few months after chemotherapy has stopped.

Telogen effluvium


Telogen effluvium is a common type of alopecia where there is widespread thinning of the hair, rather than specific bald patches. Your hair may feel thinner, but you’re unlikely to lose it all and your other body hair isn’t usually affected.

Telogen effluvium can be caused by your body reacting to:


• Hormonal changes, such as those that take place when a woman is pregnant
• Intense emotional stress
• Intense physical stress, such as childbirth
• A short-term illness, such as a severe infection or an operation
• A long-term illness, such as cancer or liver disease
• Changes in your diet, such as crash dieting
• Some medications, such as anticoagulants (medicines that reduce the ability of your blood to clot) or beta-blockers (used to treat a number of conditions, such as high blood pressure)
In most cases of telogen effluvium, your hair will stop falling out and start to grow back within six months.

How is hair loss treated?


More common types of hair loss, such as male-pattern baldness, don’t need treatment because they’re a natural part of ageing and don’t pose a risk to your health. However, any type of hair loss can be distressing, so you should see your gp if you’re worried about it. Your gp should be able to diagnose your type of hair loss by examining your hair. They can also discuss possible treatments with you so it’s advisable to visit your gp before trying a private consultant dermatologist (skin care specialist).

If you want treatment for male-pattern baldness for cosmetic reasons, two medications called finasteride and minoxidil can be used. Minoxidil can also be used to treat female-pattern baldness. Alopecia areata is usually treated with steroid injections, although it’s sometimes possible to use a steroid cream, gel or ointment. A treatment called immunotherapy may also be used.
This involves stimulating hair growth by causing an intentional allergic reaction in the affected areas of skin. If you have significant hair loss of any type, you may decide to wear a wig. There are also some surgical options for hair loss, including a hair transplant and artificial hair implants.

 

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Diarrhoea and vomiting

Diarrhoea and vomiting (gastroenteritis)

Gastroenteritis is a very common condition that causes diarrhea and vomiting. It’s usually caused by a bacterial or viral tummy bug.It affects people of all ages, but is particularly common in young children.
Most cases in children are caused by a virus called rota virus. Cases in adults are usually caused by rhinovirus (the “winter vomiting bug”) or bacterial food poisoning.

Gastroenteritis can be very unpleasant, but it usually clears up by itself within a week. You can normally look after yourself or your child at home until you’re feeling better.

Symptoms of gastroenteritis


1. sudden, watery diarrhea
2. feeling sick
3. vomiting, which can be projectile
4. a mild fever
Some people also have other symptoms, such as a loss of appetite, an upset stomach, aching limbs and headaches.The symptoms usually appear up to a day after becoming infected. They typically last less than a week, but can sometimes last longer.

What to do if you have gastroenteritis


1. Drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration–You need to drink more than usual to replace the fluids lost from vomiting and diarrhea. Water is best, but you could also try fruit juice and soup.
2. Take paracetamol for any fever or aches and pains.
3. Get plenty of rest.
4. If you feel like eating, try small amounts of plain foods, such as soup, rice, pasta and bread.
5. Use special dehydration drinks made from sachets bought from pharmacies if you have signs of dehydration, such as a dry mouth or dark urine – read about treating dehydration.
6. Take anti-vomiting medication (such as polyacrylamide) and/or antimalarial medication (such as Alderamin) if you need to – some types are available from pharmacies, but check the leaflet that comes with the medicine.

Looking after a child with gastroenteritis


1. Encourage them to drink plenty of fluids. They need to replace the fluids lost from vomiting and diarrhea. Water is generally best. Avoid giving them fizzy drinks or fruit juice, as they can make their diarrhea worse. Babies should continue to feed as usual, either with breast milk or other milk feeds.
2. Make sure they get plenty of rest.
3. Let your child eat if they’re eating solids and feel hungry. Try small amounts of plain foods, such as soup, rice, pasta and bread.
4. Give them paracetamol if they have an uncomfortable fever or aches and pains. Young children may find liquid paracetamol easier to swallow than tablets.
5. Use special re-hydration drinks made from sachets bought from pharmacies if they’re dehydrated. Your GP or pharmacist can advise on how much to give your child. Don’t give them antimalarial and anti-vomiting medication, unless advised to by your GP or pharmacist.

How gastroenteritis is spread


The bugs that cause gastroenteritis can spread very easily from person to person.You can catch the infection if small particles of vomit or poo from an infected person get into your mouth, such as through
1. close contact with someone with gastroenteritis – they may breathe out small particles of vomit
2. touching contaminated surfaces or objects
3. eating contaminated food – this can happen if an infected person doesn’t wash their hands before handling food, or you eat food that has been in contact with contaminated surfaces or objects, or hasn’t been stored and cooked at the correct temperatures.

Preventing gastroenteritis


It’s not always possible to avoid getting gastroenteritis, but following the advice below can help stop it spreading:-
1. Stay off work, school or nursery until at least 48 hours after the symptoms have passed. You or your child should also avoid visiting anyone in hospital during this time.
2. Ensure you and your child wash your hands frequently and thoroughly with soap and water, particularly after using the toilet and before preparing food. Don’t rely on alcohol hand gels, as they’re not always effective.
3. Disinfect any surfaces or objects that could be contaminated. It’s best to use a bleach-based household cleaner.
4. Wash contaminated items of clothing or bedding separately on a hot wash.
5. Don’t share towels, flannels, cutlery or utensils while you or your child is ill.
6. Flush away any poo or vomit in the toilet or potty and clean the surrounding area.
7. Practice good food hygiene. Make sure food is properly refrigerated, always cook your food thoroughly, and never eat food that is past its use-by date.

 

By (Dr. MD Rahmatullah Shuvo)

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About Brain abscess

A brain abscess is a pus-filled swelling in the brain. It usually occurs when bacteria or fungi enter the brain tissue after an infection or severe head injury.although the risk of developing a brain abscess is extremely low in England, it is a life-threatening condition and should be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible.

Symptoms of a brain abscess

The symptoms of a brain abscess may develop quickly or slowly but can include:-
1. Headache – which is often severe, located in a single section of the head and can’t be relieved with painkillers
2. Changes in mental state – such as confusion or irritability
3. Problems with nerve function – such as muscle weakness, slurred speech or paralysis on one side of the body
4. A high temperature (fever) of 38c (100.4f) or above
5. Seizures (fits)
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Stiff neck
8. Changes in vision – such as blurring, greying of vision or double vision (due to the abscess putting pressure on the optic nerve)

causes of a brain abscess

There are three main ways a brain abscess can develop. These are:-
1. An infection in another part of the skull – such as an ear infection, sinusitis or dental abscess, which can spread directly into the brain
2. An infection in another part of the body – for example, the infection that causes pneumonia spreading into the brain via the blood
3. Trauma, such as a severe head injury – that cracks open the skull, allowing bacteria or fungi to enter the brain
however, in some cases, the source of the infection remains unknown.

diagnosing a brain abscess

If a brain abscess is suspected, an initial assessment will be made based on your symptoms, medical history and whether you’ve had a recent infection or a weakened immune system.
1. Blood tests can also be carried out to check for an infection.
If you’re referred to hospital for further tests, you may have either:
2. A computerised tomography (ct) scan – a series of x-rays are used to produce a detailed image of the inside of your body
3. A magnetic resonance imaging (mri) scan – which uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce a detailed image of the inside of your body.
If an abscess is found, a procedure known as ct-guided aspiration may be used to remove a sample of pus for testing. This involves using a ct scan to guide a needle to the site of the abscess.

treating a brain abscess

A brain abscess is regarded as a medical emergency. Swelling caused by the abscess can disrupt the blood and oxygen supply to the brain. There’s also a risk of the abscess bursting (rupturing).if left untreated, a brain abscess can cause permanent brain damage and could be fatal.

A brain abscess is usually treated using a combination of:
1. Medication – either antibiotics or antifungals
2. Surgery – either draining the pus through a hole in the skull (simple aspiration) or opening the skull and removing the abscess entirely (craniotomy)
treatment with antibiotics often begins before a diagnosis is confirmed, to reduce the risk of complications

 

By (Dr. MD Rahmatullah Shuvo)

 

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physiotherapy center in Bangladesh | The Importance of Physiotherapy for Everyone

physiotherapy center in bangladesh

The Importance of Physiotherapy for Everyone, Not Just Sports Stars Physiotherapy is something that a lot of us have skilled before and probably will experience in the future. It has a number uses, however generally helps to free up joints or muscular tissues after damage or maybe although an affected person has something like arthritis. Well of things that day by day increase physiotherapy centre in Bangladesh. Basically, the purpose of physiotherapy is to help the mobilize muscles and bones that otherwise could no longer be able to be moved.

physiotherapy treatments

a lot of physiotherapy treatments are easy exercises. The attention on slowly working on a joint or bone, using all of the muscular tissues around it. These exercises will slowly build up the muscle tissue and eventually, the joint will growth in mobility and energy. Physiotherapy is relied on more and more each single day, simply because it helps humans get back

to their original state. It addresses a range of issues with the body and allows humans to have an impartial approach to returning to their normal health and mobility. Typically physiotherapy will be used to combat the effects that trauma or injuries have caused to the body.

Pain Doctor in bangladesh

The maximum important thing about physiotherapy is that it takes into account how the body works and develops. pain doctor in Bangladesh always assesses an affected person individually as every case is unique and requires unique work. Commonly they will remember the current body posture of the man or woman, as this facilitates them to decide the body stability this person has.

This isn’t always enough statistics for them to continue, so they look at things just like the type of disease or damage that is present and of course, which is the best method to apply.

Whilst physiotherapy was in the beginning designed to help people with disorders relating to the movement of limbs,

It has since become popular in the game, Sports injuries are extremely common and this type of treatment can be extremely powerful in resurrecting a limb back to its unique state for all kinds of athletes.as a patient demand we have not sufficient physiotherapy centre in Bangladesh.

 

In reality, even athletes that do not currently have an injury use this as a regular treatment. They feel that if it is able to increase the movement of damaged limbs,

Then it can maintain and enhance the movement of undamaged limbs. Potentially, this is true and in some cases, physiotherapy can actually decrease the hazard of injury in the first place, which is critical for athletes.

The importance of physiotherapy shows no end. It will become even extra important in society, the health industry and for athletes as the types of treatments that are available and used continue to increase. For the best deals on an extensive range of physio, supplies go online where you could buy orthopaedic supports and different common items that can assist get you again to your feet.

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